The abessive (ilmaütlev kääne in Estonian) answers the questions kelleta? 'without whom?' and milleta? 'without what?'.
It is often used with the preposition ilma, which also means 'without'.
The suffix -ta must be added to the genitive form of the word.
The comitative case (kaasaütlev kääne in Estonian) answers the questions kellega? 'with whom?' and millega? 'with what?'.
The suffix -ga is added to the genitive form.
When an adjective appears as an attribute before a noun in the comitative or abessive case, the adjective does not take the ending of these cases like the noun does, but remains in the genitive case.
When there are two or more nouns in a row, the comitative or abessive suffix is usually only added to the last noun. (Typically in English the prepositions 'with' or 'without' are also used only once, not repeated with each noun.)
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