Abessive and comitative cases in Estonian
- Exercise: abessive and comitative case Score -/-
When to use the abessive case?
The abessive (ilmaütlev kääne in Estonian) answers the questions kelleta? 'without whom?' and milleta? 'without what?'.
It is often used with the preposition ilma, which also means 'without'.
- Päikeseta on külm. --- Without the sun it's cold.
- Ilma sõpradeta oleks mul igav. --- Without friends I would be bored.
- Ära sisene ilma loata! --- Don't enter without permission!
How to form the abessive case?
The suffix -ta must be added to the genitive form of the word.
When to use the comitative case in Estonian?
The comitative case (kaasaütlev kääne in Estonian) answers the questions kellega? 'with whom?' and millega? 'with what?'.
- Ma räägin oma emaga. --- I am talking with my mother.
- Tüdruk sarnaneb oma õega. --- The girl resembles (has a resemblance with) her sister.
- Poiss sõidab autoga tööle. --- The boy drives (with the car) to work.
How to form the comitative case?
The suffix -ga is added to the genitive form.
When an adjective appears as an attribute before a noun in the comitative or abessive case, the adjective does not take the ending of these cases like the noun does, but remains in the genitive case.
- Poiss tantsib noore (gen.) tüdrukuga (com.). --- The boy is dancing with a young girl.
- Nad kuulasid õpetajat suure (gen.) huviga (com.). --- They were listening to the teacher with great interest.
- Ilma raske (gen.) tööta (abe.) ei jõua sa kuhugi. --- Without hard work you will not get anywhere.
When there are two or more nouns in a row, the comitative or abessive suffix is usually only added to the last noun. (Typically in English the prepositions 'with' or 'without' are also used only once, not repeated with each noun.)
- Käisin kinos oma venna (gen.) ja õega (com.). --- I went to the cinema with my brother and sister.
- Me sööme noa (gen.) ja kahvliga (com.). --- We eat with a knife and fork.
- Ilma vee (gen.) ja seebita (abe.) ei saa sa oma käsi puhtaks. --- Without water and soap you won't get your hands clean.
Train your skills with our exercises!
Practise with a private teacher on Skype!
- Private Skype lessons
- Learn any topic
- Flexible appointments
Estonian, English or Russian private lessons
I teach: English, Estonian, Russian
Hi,First of all, I would like to congratulate you on the decision to learn or improve a new language. Whether it is Estonian, English or... Russian, beginner, advanced or Business language - you are in the right place.My name is Martin and I am coming from a tiny country in the Northern Europe called Estonia. One of my biggest hobbies is teaching and educating others, that is why for the past 3 years I have been living and working in Istanbul while teaching English to different age groups: kindergarten, school, university as well as adults. I have had students from Beginners to Advanced as well as several businessmen and CEOs of international companies located in Istanbul. What is more, for the last 2 years I have been teaching Estonian, English and Russian online through Skype that gave me chance to meet people from all over the world and help them on their journey of learning foreign languages in a comfortable and enjoyable environment.We are going to have a 20-30-minute trial lesson during which we can get to know each other, set expectations towards the lessons and schedule the timetable. The next step is simple - we start learning the language of your choice! As simple as it is :)During the lessons we will focus on making you speak even with the limited vocabulary because speaking is the key to learning a new language quickly and in a fun way!Cannot wait to receive your in-mail and help you on your journey to learn and speak a foreign language.Martin Read more
Very experienced teacher!