The -da infinitive
The second type of infinitive usually has the ending -da. In some cases, the suffix can be -ta or only -a (-d- has disappeared).
If the stem of the verb already ends in d or t, this consonant is normally not repeated and only -a is added to the end of the word.
When to use the -da infinitive?
1) after verbs expressing wish, intention, possibility:
|to try, attempt||proovima|
|to be able, know how||oskama|
- Ma tahan tantsida. --- I want to dance.
- Kas sa oskad tennist mängida? --- Do you know how to play tennis?
- Ma soovin puhata. --- I wish to rest
2) after verbs that express a feeling or emotion:
|to fear, be afraid||kartma|
- Ma armastan meres ujuda. --- I love to swim in the sea.
- Mulle meeldib filme vaadata. --- I like to watch movies.
- Ma kardan üksi pimedas kõndida. --- I am afraid to walk alone in the dark.
3) after impersonal expressions:
|it is time||on aeg|
|it is beneficial, useful||on kasulik|
|it is hard||on raske|
|it is necessary||on tarvis|
|it is necessary||on vaja|
|it is painful||on valus|
|it is possible||saab|
|it is permitted||tohib|
|one ought to, must||tuleb|
- On aeg koju minna. --- It is time to go home.
- Seda on valus vaadata. --- It is painful to watch this.
- Trenni on kasulik teha iga päev. --- It is beneficial to work out every day.
4) after the conjunction et, when it means 'in order to'
- Ma lähen poodi, et osta piima. --- I am going to the shop to buy milk.
5) when the infinitive is used as the subject in a sentence, or when it modifies a subject:
- Eksida on inimlik. --- To be mistaken is human.
The gerund (-des form)
The -des form is derived from the -da infinitive and it is used to indicate an action which occurs at the same time as another.
It is constructed by substituting the endings -da, -ta or -a with -des, -tes or -es respectively.
- Käi poodi minnes pagariärist läbi. --- While going to the shop visit the bakery as well.
- Läksin koju joostes. --- I went home running.
- Nad istuvad vaikides. --- They sit (while) being quiet.
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