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In grammar, a pronoun is defined as a word or phrase that may be substituted for a noun or noun phrase. How is this possible? Briefly, it’s because pronouns can do everything that nouns can do. A pronoun can act as a subject, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition, and more.
In Estonian there are 6 different types of pronouns.
Personal pronouns have two forms in Estonian - a long form which is used when you want to emphazise the pronoun and a short form which is used when you don't.
In the following tables you can see how the personal pronouns are declined.
A reflexive pronoun indicates that the person who is realizing the action of the verb is also the recipient of the action.
There are two of them in Estonian:
The pronoun ise is equivalent to '(one)self' in English.
|-self (singular)||short||-selves (plural)||short|
There are compound pronouns for all the forms of ise except the nominative: gen. iseenese, part. iseennast, ill. iseenesesse etc. They mean the same thing as simpler forms but add an element of emphasis.
The pronoun oma is used to indicate possession by the subject of the sentence. It corresponds to the possessive pronouns in English, like 'my (own)' or 'mine' etc.
|Partitive||oma||omasid / omi|
However, the pronoun oma is normally not declined!
The pronoun oma is declined for special emphasis. Adding an emphatic 'own' would be the equivalent in English.
The pronoun oma is also declined when it stands alone, without an accompanying noun.
Reciprocal pronouns are used for expressing mutual actions or relationship; i.e. one another, each other.
There are two of them in Estonian: üksteise 'each other's' (of more than two people) and teineteise 'each other's' (of two people). Both of them lack the plural forms and the singular nominative.
Demonstrative pronouns are used to point to something specific within a sentence.
In the table below you can find the most used demonstrative pronouns declined in the first 3 cases. (The other 11 cases are declined regurarly, by adding the appropriate endings to the genitive)
|That kind (of)||selline||sellise||sellist|
|This kind (of)||niisugune||niisuguse||niisugust|
Interrogative-relative pronouns are those which refer to nouns mentioned previously, acting to introduce an adjective (relative) clause or those which introduce a question.
|What kind of / which one||missugune||missuguse||missugust|
|Who or which (of the two)||kumb||kumma||kumba|
|Which kind (of)||milline||millise||millist|
Indefinite pronouns refer to one or more unspecified objects, beings, or places.
|A single (something)||ükski||ühegi||ühtegi|
|Everyone, everything, all (singular)||kõik||kõige||kõike|
|Everyone, everything, all (plural)||kõik||kõigi||kõiki|
|All of, the whole of||kogu||-||-|
Continue to the exercises to practice pronouns in Estonian!
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