• Bulgarian grammar
  • 1 Bulgarian sentence structure
  • 2 Bulgarian pronouns [0/10]
  • 3 Bulgarian nouns [0/6]
  • 4 Bulgarian verbs [0/16]
  • 5 Bulgarian prepositions [0/2]
  • 6 Bulgarian adjectives [0/6]
  • 7 Bulgarian adverbs [0/2]
  • Present perfect tense in Bulgarian


    1. Fill in the right form of the verb Score -/-
    2. Choose the right signal word Score -/-

    1. When to use the Present perfect tense 

    The present simple tense in Bulgarian is used to talk about: 

    an action thet happened in a non-specific time in the past, the results of which are evident in or affect the present.

    Бил съм в Канада.   Bila sum v Kanada.    I have been un Canada. 
    Купила съм хляб.  Kupila sum hlyab.  I have bought bread.
    Чела съм тази книга.   Chela sum tazi kniga.  I have read this book.


    enlightenedIn most cases the Bulgarian perfect tense is translated into English by the use of the present perfect tense (I have played)

    enlightenedUnlike in English, we can use the present perfect in Bulgarian when the time of the action is specified. In those cases it is translated into English by using past simple tense:

    Виждал/а ли си го днес?  Vizhdal/а li si go dnes?  Did you see him today? 
    Бил/а си в магазина тази седмица?   Bil/а li si v magazina tazi sedmitza?  Did you go to the supermarket this week? 
    Купил/а ли си захар   вчера?  Kupil/а li si zahar vchera?  Did you buy sugar yesterday?


    2. Signal words

    With this tense we only tell that something have happened or we have done something, but we don´t specify when. The event happened at some point in the past but the information "when it happened" is missing or not important. However, there are some time markers that will help you use this tense correctly:

    Някога   Nyakoga  Ever 
    Никога  Nikoga  Never


    enlightenedExplore the following examples:

    Някога била/а ли си в Куба?  Nyakoga bil/a li si v Kuba?   Have you ever been in Cuba? 
    Никога не съм/а била в КУба?  Nikoga ne sym bil/a v Kuba?  I have never been in Cuba?


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    3. Formation and verb conjugation

    The present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of the verb "to be" and the past participle of the main verb.

                                         enlightenedСЪМ (to be) + ходил/правил/живял (past partisiple)

    the verb "СЪМ" ("to be") is usually placed before the pst prtisiple but if there is no other word before the past simple participle "СЪМ" ("to be") goes after it.

                                        enlightenedАз съм ходила = Ходила съм.

    + + - -
    Аз съм ходил/а  I have walked Аз не съм ходил/а  I have not walked
    Ти си ходил/а  You have walked Ти не си ходил/а  You have not walked
    Той е ходил/а  He has walked Той не е ходил/а  He has not walked
    Ние сме ходили  We have walked Ние не сме ходили  We have not walked
    Вие сте  ходили  You have walked Вие не сте ходили  You have not walked
    Те са ходили  They have wlaked Те не са ходили  They have not walked


    Ask questions using Present perfect tense

    In Bulgaran language we use the question word "ли" to convert the sentence into a question.


    + - -
    Бил/а ли съм?  Have I been? Не съм ли бил/а?  Have I not been?
    Бил/а ли си?  Have you been? Не си ли бил/а?  Have you not been?
    Бил/а ли е?  Has he been? Не е ли бил/а?  Has he not been?
    Били ли сме?  Have we been? Не сме ли били?  Have we not been?
    Били ли сте?  Have you been? Не сте ли били?  Have you not been?
    Били ли са?  Have they been? Не са ли били?  Have they not been?


    4. Conjugation of reflexive verbs

    The word order of the reflexive verbs in the present perfect tense requires special attention - in 3rd person singular the reflexive participle "СЕ"  is placed before the verb while in all other forms it come after it.

    + + - -
    Аз съм се върнал/а I have returned Аз не съм се върнал/а I have not returned
    Ти си се върнал/а You have returned Ти не си се върнал/а You have returned
    Той/тя се е върнал/а He/she has returned Той/тя не се е върнал He/she has returned 
    Ние сме се върнали We have returned Ние не сме се върнали We have returned
    Вие сте се върнали You have returned Вие не сте се върнали You have returned
    Те са се върнали They have returned Те не са се върнали They have returned